Livonian Order

The first GDL cities with Magdeburg Rights

Communities of city burghers created self-governing cities as a result of the city burghers’ struggles with sovereigns for cities’ rights and freedoms at...

Drinking in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania

Alcohol, produced by fermenting liquids, has been known in many continents and cultures from as far back as the stone and bronze ages. The first knowledge of...

Written documents in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania oral culture

Pre-Christian Lithuania was a land of oral culture. Peter of Dusburg, the chronicler of the German Order, retold an ironic joke in the early 14th century...

The last medieval dukedom: the coronation of Mindaugas

The Lithuanian dukedom was in existence for 10 years only: from the coronation of Mindaugas in July 1253 to his murder in 1263. Later two more attempts to...