The protest was staged outside Israel's embassy in the Lithuanian capital more than a week after demonstrations in the territory ended in an outbreak of violence.
The protesters carried Palestinian flags and held posters expressing solidarity with the Palestinians and urging Israel to stop aggression.
"We don't agree with the killings by Israel in Gaza and the West Bank. We disagree with the absolutely disproportionate use of force," Andrius Mažeika, the organizer of the protest, told BNS.
"We support the Palestinians in their striving for freedom and see certain parallels with our striving for freedom when we separated from the Soviet Union," he added.
Israel has faced international criticism after 58 people Palestinians were killed amid protests in Gaza against the opening of the US embassy in Jerusalem.
Lithuania last week also called on the Jewish state to adequately use force against Palestinian protesters.